Oral and Dental Health


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    Like other parts of the body, your mouth is full of bacteria, and these bacteria are mostly harmless.
    However, your mouth is the entrance into your digestive and respiratory tract, and some of these bacteria can cause diseases. Normally, the body’s natural defenses, and regular oral health care such as daily brushing, and flossing keep the quantity of bacteria limited.
    However, without proper oral hygiene, bacteria can reach levels that can lead to oral infections such as tooth decay and gum disease. Oral health deterioration can lead to many other diseases, as well as a sign of some diseases. Hence, it is important to pay attention to your oral and dental health and to be examined by a dentist regularly.
    Services we offer in the department of oral and dental health
    Dentists diagnose and treat problems in patients’ teeth, gums, and related parts of the mouth. Treatment can have many aims and practices. The services we offer in the oral and dental health department in our hospital;
    • Oral diagnosis and radiology
    • Maxillofacial surgery treatments
    • 20 age teeth treatments
    • Gum diseases (periodontology)
    • Dental filling treatments
    • Teeth whitening
    • Root canal treatment (endodontics)
    • Children’s dentistry (pedodontics)
    • Prosthesis and bridge applications
    • Aesthetic dentistry applications
    • Implant treatments
    • Orthodontic treatments
    • Laser dental treatments
    • Treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD)
    • Bad breath treatments
    • Teeth grinding treatments (bruxism)
    Oral diagnosis and radiology
    In the oral diagnosis and radiology department, we diagnose oral diseases after a detailed oral examination and x-ray screening. In addition to determining the cause of oral disorders, pre-diagnosis procedures are also performed. It is aimed to minimize the problems with preventive medicine and early diagnosis.
    The diagnosis and treatment of jawbone and dental diseases, especially in the case of hard tissues, is facilitated thanks to oral imagining systems.
    The most commonly used intraoral imaging systems with the latest technological developments can be listed as “Intraoral Camera”, “Panoramic X-ray”, “Periapical X-ray”, “Digital X-ray”, “Computed Tomography”.
    Diagnosis and treatment
    Oral diagnosis and radiology department diagnose and treat oral diseases by using intraoral and extraoral imaging techniques. After detailed oral examinations, oral diagnosis and radiology department examine the mouth by screening methods. The appropriate treatment plan is prepared by using one or more of the imaging techniques required for post-examination diagnosis.
    Maxillofacial surgery
    Maxillofacial surgery department is for the treatment of jaw diseases of the tissues in the region of the lower (mandible) and upper jaw (maxilla) bones and soft tissues.
    Jaw surgery
    Jaw surgery involves these treatments;
    • Protecting teeth by removing the lesions (inflammations) in the dental roots
    • Surgical removal of dental cysts
    • Repair of root anomalies
    • Removal of impacted teeth
    • Surgical maintenance of impacted canine teeth
    • Surgical assistance during teeth operations
    • Surgical removal of congenital or acquired cysts in the jawbones
    • Dental implant surgery for not missing teeth
    • Correction of abnormal bone structures in the jawbones
    • Reconstruction of basic bones with orthognathic surgery
    • Providing support by placing bone grafts in areas with bone deficiency
    • Correction of edentulous jawbones for more suitable prostheses
    • Pre-prosthetic surgery to increase the insufficient shallowness of the gums
    • Gingival and jawbone surgery to provide sufficient distance for the prosthesis
    • Frenulum surgery for ankyloglossia
    Dental implant surgery
    • Artificial root placement to replace missing teeth with implants
    • If necessary, preparation of this area with bone grafts and membranes for pre-implant surgery.
    Gum diseases (Periodontology)
    The periodontology department, also known as gum diseases, treats the tissues surrounding the teeth when they are infected. Teeth are embedded in the jawbone. There is a tissue made of fibroelastic fibers, called the periodontal ligament, located between the bone and the root surface of the tooth.
    This tissue ensures that the forces on the teeth are softened while transmitting to the jawbone. The gums and oral mucosa cover these structures. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition that affects the soft and hard tissues surrounding the gums and teeth.
    Symptoms of gum disease
    • Bad breath
    • Loose teeth
    • Receding gums
    • Sensitive teeth to cold
    • Dental occlusion problems
    • Bleeding when brushing gums
    • New teeth gaps
    • Constant sores in the oral cavity
    • Recent swelling and redness of the gums
    Treatment of gum disease
    The most important goal in gum treatment is to reduce and slow down the inflammatory reaction. The first stage of the treatment intends to remove the tartar, bacterial plaque, and periodontal pockets that cause inflammation. Dental hand tools and ultrasonic devices (cavitrons) are used to remove tartar and bacterial plaques. As with other diseases, it is very important to start treatment as early as possible. Periodontal destruction can be slowed down or stopped through the right treatment method.
    Bad, old dental fillings and prostheses that cause gingivitis should be replaced immediately.
    Dental filling procedure
    It is a treatment method that is counted as a protective method because it causes the least amount of dental material loss. We would like to share more detailed information about dental filling procedures; what to expect and why are applied?
    Decayed Tooth
    When teeth are not brushed well and oral hygiene is impaired, bacteria found in plaques and stones (tartar) on the teeth survive thanks to “sugar”. The acid that develops after eating sugar softens the hard tissue of the tooth and causes tooth decay.
    Types of dental filling
    By removing the hard tissue of the softened and damaged part, the tooth is purified from decay. After the decay is cleaned, a suitable filling material should be placed in the cavity. This filling material should be easy to apply and should not cause any leakage by covering the cavity perfectly. At the same time, both the patients and physicians need to fill the cavity using a material that results in aesthetic appearance. If the patient has a sensitivity to heat, inability to chew comfortably, or severe pain, or if the decay has reached the living tissue (pulp) in the tooth, first root canal treatment is applied, and then the filling is placed in the cavity.
    Filling types;
    • Amalgam filling
    • Composite filling
    • Porcelain filler
    The most used filling materials in dentistry are amalgam, composite, compomer, or porcelain fillings.
    Porcelain filling
    Porcelain fillings are a filling method that is applied to patients who have a lot of material loss and who need crown application by shrinking the whole tooth to protect healthy dental tissue. It is preferred over amalgam fillings because it is more aesthetic and useful.
    Advantages of porcelain filling;
    • It has long-term life and is durable.
    • Rejuvenation time is very long.
    • It is remarkably aesthetic.
    • The hardness of the material is very close to the hardness of tooth enamel.
    • It is extremely resistant to chewing forces in posterior teeth (molars) compared to composite fillings.
    • After the cavity is prepared, the measurement is taken and prepared in the laboratory, so it has a perfect dental fit.
    Teeth whitening
    Various reasons cause the dental color to become darker, hence bleaching is the process of making the color of the teeth lighter. You can do this yourself with the gels squeezed on top of the teeth and keep the gel all night long, or you can have it done in the clinic under the supervision of a dentist.
    Especially in the anterior region, darkened and discolored teeth impair the aesthetics. Modern dentistry has made great strides in whitening methods that protect teeth and do not overwhelm the patient.
    Before bleaching, dental calculus, bacterial plaques, and all deposits are removed by tartar cleaning.
    The whitening substance reacts with the hard tissue of the tooth (oxidation) and provides lightening in the color of the tooth.
    Teeth whitening methods are;
    • Home Bleaching
    • Office Bleaching
    • Internal Whitening
    Home Bleaching
    In this method, whitening plates are prepared in the patient’s mouth by measuring. The patient applies a certain amount of bleaching gel (10–15% carbamide peroxide) into these plaques at home. The patient keeps this plaque on the teeth for the recommended period (3-5 days).
    Home bleaching requires good protection of the gums. The whitening gel should not overflow or touch the gums. The overflowing gel should be removed with a toothbrush. Since the dental fillings in the teeth will not be whitened by this method, they will disrupt the aesthetic appearance after the teeth are whitened.
    Therefore, these fillings should also be changed. For people who consume a great amount of coffee, tea, and cigarettes, there is a possibility that teeth whitening would be effective for only a short period.
    Office Bleaching (Practice in the Clinic)
    It is a proper method for patients with time limitations. It provides effective whitening in a much shorter time. It is more expensive than the house type. The whitening gel applied on the teeth by the dentist is activated with UV light or laser and the whitening procedure becomes effective within 1-2 hours.
    Root Canal Treatment (Endodontics)
    Endodontics, known as root canal therapy, is used to treat the damage of the soft layer (pulp) in the tooth containing lymph vessels, nerves, and blood veins.
    In the case of general damage to the soft tooth layer, teeth used to be extracted. However, with the root canal treatment applied to teeth in modern technology, tooth extraction is no longer the only solution.
    Why is root canal treatment performed?
    If the living tissue or nerves in the root canals are inflamed or died, canal treatment is required.
    Because this tissue cannot renew and repair itself like other tissues in the body. Deep caries, dental filling, tooth cutting, and fractures and cracks in the tooth can cause inflammation of the pulp. Besides, trauma to the tooth can cause inflammation and damage to the pulp even if there is no crack or decay in the tooth. If the inflamed pulp is not treated, it will cause pain and abscess.
    Can root canal treatment be applied to all teeth?
    Some teeth may not be preserved with root canal treatment. The main reasons are the inability to enter the canals, fractures in the roots, insufficient bone support, or the tooth being damaged beyond restoration.
    Does root canal treatment kill the tooth?
    The thought that “root canal treatment kills the tooth” is not accurate. With root canal treatment, after the living tissue inside the tooth is removed, the tooth becomes numb against heat and cold, but it continues to function with vessels and nerves coming from the jawbone and surrounding tissues and adheres to the bone. With the help of a suitable filling or restoration to be made after the treatment, you can chew easily.
    Pedodontics (Pediatric dentistry)
    Pedodontics (pediatric dentistry) is the dentistry department that ensures the healthy development and protection of the deciduous teeth (milk teeth) and permanent teeth of children between 0 and 14 years old.
    Many factors play a role in the success of pedodontic applications, but the basis of success is the patient-dentist relationship. Thanks to the good communication between the child and the dentist, the fear and anxiety of the child can be reduced. We, as a hospital and health care provider, ensure that children feel safe, compatible, and relaxed.
    The Pedodontics department’s duties are;
    • Factors affecting the development of deciduous teeth and calcification in the baby’s life in the womb,
    • Postpartum, tooth eruption and factors affecting tooth eruption in babies,
    • Development-calcification and eruption of permanent teeth,
    • Decays in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children and their treatment methods,
    • Methods of protecting children’s oral and dental health,
    • The relationship between oral and dental findings and systemic diseases in pediatric patients,
    • Preventive dentistry,
    • Dental traumas and their treatments
    • Preventive medicine and dental treatments in mentally handicapped children,
    • Prevention of future problems due to early loss of deciduous teeth
    Pedodontics applications
    • Fluoride applications
    • Fissure sealant applications
    • Placeholder applications
    • Regulation of nutrition habits
    Dentures and bridge
    • Crown-bridge applications (fixed)
    • Total-partial dentures (removable)
    • Implant prosthetics
    Crown and bridge applications
    Crown and bridge are the treatment methods applied in severe teeth decay cases.
    Damaged and destroyed teeth that cannot be filled with a dental material, are restored with crowns. For some damaged teeth, crowns that receive support from the root canal can also be applied after root canal treatment. With good oral care, they durable and stable for a long time. The decision about crown types will be made after the oral examination.
    * Much more natural form and color balance thanks to the light transmittance obtained due to the ceramic infrastructure
    * Higher texture compatibility than metal
    These are fixed prostheses that are prepared in the laboratory after a detailed oral measurement for the fixed prosthesis to be made on one or two teeth nearby to the missing area in case of one or a few missing teeth, and then glued on the prepared teeth with a special adhesive.
    * They are fixed as they are joined to the teeth.
    * It is comfortable and convenient to use.
    * They are visually aesthetic.
    * Chewing comfort cannot be distinguished from natural teeth.
    Partial and total dentures
    Partial Prostheses (Partial Dentures): If the number of teeth in the mouth is not sufficient for fixed bridge construction, some prostheses can be removed and attached with support from both teeth and the patient’s oral soft tissues. They are made solely of acrylic or acrylic with a metal base (skeleton prostheses). Prostheses made of acrylic only are preferred as temporary prosthesis due to their lack of durability.
    Skeletal Partial Prostheses: These are metal removable prostheses that are supported by the patient’s oral soft tissues and existing teeth directly or indirectly with retainers (crochet-hook).
    * They are economical.
    * In addition to being visually aesthetic in certain circumstances, they are functional.
    Precision Attachment Partial Prostheses: These are removable prostheses that are supported by the patient’s oral soft tissues and the retainers placed on the crowned existing teeth. They are also known as semi-fixed prostheses among the people.
    * It was visually aesthetic due to the lack of crochets (hooks).
    * They provide a better holding and stabilization.
    * They apply more balance and less force on the teeth.
    Total Prostheses (Complete Dentures): These are prostheses made when there is no tooth in the oral cavity. They are soft tissue supported removable prostheses prepared by arranging prefabricated teeth on a gingival-colored acrylic base. They hold in the mouth with negative air pressure.
    * They are economical.
    * It is a rational solution to the complete edentulism problem.
    Aesthetic (cosmetic) dentistry
    Aesthetic dentistry is a dental application that is made in harmony with the patient’s face and natural look.
    After dental treatment, the patient’s satisfaction is not only dependent on the success of the treatment but is also closely related to the aesthetic result achieved. About aesthetics, the patient’s opinion should be taken and his/ her requests should be noted meticulously. Also, biological and functional perspectives should not be neglected while providing visually aesthetic health care results.
    Reasons for dental aesthetic application
    • Colored teeth due to many reasons
    • Broken front teeth due to accidents
    • Anterior tooth decay due to many reasons
    • Bad looking teeth due to receding gums
    • Aesthetic shaping of teeth after gum treatments
    • The shaping of teeth lost due to many reasons in the anterior region following lip and facial aesthetics
    Aesthetic dentistry applications
    • Bleaching
    • Veneer (composite or porcelain laminate)
    • Full porcelain crowns or bridges
    • Porcelain fillings compatible with the color of the tooth
    • Gingival shaping
    • Orthodontics
    • Professional dental cleaning
    Porcelain laminate
    Porcelain laminates are quite suitable for a bright sparkling smile. Instead of cutting and covering the tooth completely, this application saves time and does not need to be attached to the tooth in some cases. Laminates are a thin layer of porcelain. After the oral measurement, it is prepared in the laboratory and adhered to the front or visible face of the tooth. A little preparation is made only on the front of the tooth. Thus, your natural tooth is not damaged. Since laminates look extremely natural, the lasting aesthetic you dream of is provided.
    Composite laminate
    As with porcelain laminates, a limited amount of abrasion is made only on the front of the tooth. Certain proportions of color, shape, and position defects can be corrected with tooth-colored composite filling material directly in the mouth without measure. It is a method performed in a much shorter time (in one session) and its price is much more affordable than porcelain laminates. An average of 20-30 minutes is required for a tooth and results are obtained immediately.
    Gum contouring and reshaping
    Gingival shaping, also known as “gingivectomy”, is an aesthetic correction in cases where the gums appear excessive or the gums are asymmetrical due to short tooth lengths. With the applications made by the gum specialists, the length of the teeth can be extended or the gums can be made symmetrical.
    Dental implantation
    Dental implantation is a method to replace missing teeth with artificial tooth roots placed in the jawbone. It is both visually aesthetic and functional.
    Dental implants contain “artificial tooth roots” made of titanium or zircon ceramic to be placed in the jawbone and hold tightly there. After the implants are attached to the bone (osseointegration), one or more teeth, bridges, or removable prostheses can be made on them.
    Implantation’s advantages are;
    * Your real teeth will not be cut or abraded,
    * Your prosthesis will be fixed,
    * The removable prostheses used in some cases will remain firmly in your mouth,
    * Your jawbone will still have the functions like chewing, and also the teeth will look natural and visually aesthetic.
    Implant examination
    * First of all, information about your general health status is obtained during the implant examination. At that phase, some tests may be requested if necessary (in case of diabetes, vascular diseases, etc.).
    * Through panoramic radiography (in tomography when necessary), the bone density is measured. Also, anatomical formations, what type, and how many implants will be placed are decided. Implant treatment could not be performed in patients with low bone density and support. However, this problem has been significantly overcome with the surgical materials and techniques developed in recent years.
    Is dental implantation suitable for everyone?
    Implants are structures with a certain thickness and width. Therefore, in the area where the implant is to be placed, the jawbone must have the height and width to accept this implant. The quality of the existing bone is one of the factors affecting the success of the implant. Also, the gums must be completely healthy before treatment for the implant to remain healthy in the oral cavity. As long as the general health condition of the patient is good, there is no upper age limit for implant application. However, its application to very young patients with incomplete bone development may not be preferred depending on the situation.
    Fusion time of implants with bone
    It takes 3-6 months in the upper jaw (maxilla) and 3 months in the lower jaw (mandibula). At the end of the period, the dentist intervenes to the implant by a very small incision and attaches the healing head (gingiva former). These caps will help shape your gums. While single implant surgery is an option, usually double surgery technique is preferred for minimum intraoral interaction during the healing process.
    How long does the total treatment time take?
    The total time varies according to the operation type and your tooth and bone structure. If desired, you can continue your daily life with temporary prostheses.
    Dentures to be made on the implant
    Dental implantation’s prosthesis’ types can vary depending on the patient’s circumstances. Fixed prostheses are preferred for your chewing comfort and visual aesthetics. However, in some cases, it is also necessary to apply prostheses that can be removed by the patient or the dentist. Both types have advantages and disadvantages, and your dentist will decide and explain the suitable option for you before the treatment.
    How long does it take to place the implant?
    This time depends on your situation, needs, and what treatment consists of. A single surgery can take from 10 minutes to several hours. The total treatment can be completed with an operation and also may require a series of surgeries and appointments. Full recovery may take 3 to 4 months. If grafting has been performed (bone grafting – autogenous grafting for increasing bone support, the recovery time can be up to 6 months.
    How long is the recovery time?
    There is no recovery time after the operation. Since the patient cannot eat for 3 hours after stitching, it is recommended that the patient should come to the clinic fully. If you want, you can have a removable tooth between the sessions.
    Advantages of dental implantation
    * Better visual aesthetic
    * Ability to chew and eat whatever you want
    * A happier social life with the recovery of self-confidence
    * A healthier and more balanced diet due to the ability to eat everything
    Treatment applications of the orthodontics department are related to the correction of crowding teeth, and elimination of incompatibilities in teeth, jaw, and face.
    Orthodontic treatments applied by orthodontists ensure that the jawbone and teeth are placed in the right location and position. By the treatment of the crowding teeth, we assure both visual aesthetic and, oral health.
    Treatment of the crowding teeth provides preventing decay and gum diseases by making oral cleaning easier and more effective. Also, the power of the teeth and jaws will improve, resulting in a healthier chewing function.
    Orthodontic treatments
    Fixed orthodontic appliances
    It is a form of treatment with brackets attached to the tooth. Brackets can be made of metal or porcelain. Tooth-colored porcelain brackets do not cause any aesthetic discomfort.
    Removable orthodontic appliances
    They are appliances that the patient can put on and take off himself. They are applied in more manageable cases.
    Functional jaw orthopedics
    It is an orthodontic profession that aims to correct the deteriorating connections of the lower and upper jaws with special appendages worn on the face at a young age. Most of the time, orthopedic treatment (the consistency of the jaws is provided) and orthodontic treatment (the closing consistency of the teeth) are provided together.
    Orthognathic surgery
    Orthognathic surgery is applied in cases that cannot be corrected by orthodontic or orthopedic treatment. Jaw and facial disorders may occur congenitally or acquired due to accidents and diseases. The mismatch of the jaws to each other and the face causes both aesthetic and functional discomfort in patients. With advanced technology and surgical techniques, these disorders can be improved.
    Transparent mold
    In some manageable cases, crowding can now be corrected by using transparent molds without the use of brackets. It is necessary to wear these patient-specific molds, which will be changed every two weeks, for approximately 20 hours a day. Each treatment requires an average of 60 pairs (lower-upper jaw) of different corrective molds. The treatment period is close to the treatment period in braces. It varies between 6 months to 24 months depending on the case.
    How do braces move teeth?
    A force is applied to the tooth with brackets and wires. Thus, a movement occurs in the direction of the force. There is temporary destruction in the bone tissue in front of the moving tooth, and new bone tissue is made in the opposite direction of the movement. Thus, the newly replaced teeth sit in a new bone socket.
    Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJD)
    The lower jaw joint (TMJ) consists of the condyle, disc, and masticatory muscles. It provides forward, backward and lateral movement of the lower jaw. Incompatibility between these structures causes TMJ diseases. TMJ diseases are disorders seen in joint functions as a result of intra-articular or extra-articular pathologies.
    Symptoms of TMJ Disease
    * Facial pain
    * Asymmetrical face
    * Pain when chewing
    * Ringing in the ears
    * Dizziness, fainting
    * Pain and stiffness in the neck
    * Fatigue in the chin while chewing
    * Pain when closing the teeth
    * Severe headaches similar to migraine
    * Difficulty and pain when yawning or chewing gum
    * Squeaking, clicking, ticking sound when opening and closing the mouth
    * Restricted jaw opening, jaw locking, or dislocation
    Causes of TMJ Disease
    * Tumors
    * TMJ arthritis
    * Lack of teeth
    * Opening mouth widely and constantly
    * Dislocation of the disc
    * Disorder in the closing of the teeth (malocclusion)
    * Stress and tension causing spasm in chewing muscles
    * Making crowns-bridges and fillings incompatible and high
    * TMJ damage as a result of a car accident, falling, or crash
    * Grinding or clenching your teeth, which puts a lot of pressure on the joint
    Treatment methods of TMJ diseases
    First of all, rubbing the face with a slightly warm cloth, pain killers, and muscle relaxants are recommended to prevent the patient’s muscle spasm. Treatment methods are;
    * Arthrocentesis
    * Surgical intervention
    * Psychological counseling and stress management
    * Personalized hard plaque inside the mouth (occlusal splint, night plaque) that prevents clenching and grinding

    Oral and Dental Health Doctors



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    Reyap Health Group; It offers services at international standards 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with its expert and academic physician staff and experienced healthcare professionals, who follow the developments in medicine.

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    As Reyap Health Group, after the first hospital opened in Tekirdağ Çorlu in 2011, Reyap Hospital continues its high quality service in Istanbul and Esenyurt in October 2016.


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